Several of the publications cited here apply to more than one of the categories I've chosen for this listing. You're encouraged to browse the entire listing and examine publications whose titles appear on-topic for your needs.
Defense Mapping Agency Technical Report 80-003, Geodesy for the Layman, December 1983. Available online at the NGA Geospatial Science Publications resource.
Defense Mapping Agency Technical Report 8400.1, Error Theory As Applied to Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy, 2 May 1991. Available online at the NGA Geospatial Science Publications resource.
Note that I have marked links dead if I've found them not to work. Not that that's helpful to you, but I've left the resource names here in the interest of finding them, or equivalent resources, later.
Boucher, Claude, and Zuheir Altamimi, "The ITRF and its relationship to GPS." _GPS WORLD_, 7:9 (September 1996). Was once available at http://schubert.ign.fr/CIAG/WITRF/ITRF-GPS.html (dead link).
National Imagery and Mapping Agency Technical Report 8350.2, Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984: Its Definition and Relationships with Local Geodetic Systems, 3rd ed., Amendment 1, 3 January 2000. Available online at the NGA Geospatial Science Publications resource.
Ordnance Survey Great Britain, A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain. Was once available at the Ordnance Survey Web site (dead link).
Professor Cliff Mugnier (dead link) writes a monthly column, "Grids and Datums", for the ASPRS publication Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing. Each month's column describes the historical datum (or datums) for a different country, and the April 2000 column provides an overview of classical datums. The columns were once available online (dead link).
Snyder, John P. Map Projections--A Working Manual. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1395. Available in PDF from the USGS.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency Technical Manual 8358.2, The Universal Grids: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) and Universal Polar Stereographic (UPS). Available online at the NGA Geospatial Science Publications resource.
National Imagery and Mapping Agency Technical Manual 8358.1, Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems. Available online at the NGA Geospatial Science Publications resource.
Digital Geographic Information Working Group, The Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST), Part 3, Codes and Parameters. Available online from the DIGEST Web site.
Bowditch, Nathaniel, The American Practical Navigator: An Epitome of Navigation, 1995 Edition. Bethesda, Maryland: National Imagery and Mapping Agency, 1995. Was once available online at the IRBS (dead link) Web site.
Chuck Taylor --