This webpage is subdivided into four major sections:
Section 1 - Introduction,
Section 2 - Summary Listing,
Section 3 - Detailed Listing and
Section 4 - Appendices.
Note 1: This web page is still under construction. Many items are not yet listed including:
Space Shuttle SRB Nose Cone Assembly, Space Station Structural Section (8 ft x 14 ft dia.), Space Station Stowage Containers, SpaceLab Keyboard, SpaceLab On-Board Display, Space Shuttle Hydrogen Vent Valve (This may be the most dangerous single component on the Space Shuttle - The only critical component that has never been fully tested under operational conditions), Space Shuttle Oxygen Vent Valve, Apollo/Saturn V C-Band Transponder, etc.
Note 2: Not all of the Appendices are currently presented on this web site. Target date to complete is 03/15/03.
3. Detailed Listing
This section provides a detailed listing of all the items described in this document. The listing is grouped according to the mission or program on which the item was flown and is arranged in the same order as presented in Section 2.0.
3.1Saturn IB/ Saturn V Telemetry Equipment
The collection contains several pieces of telemetry hardware that are the same as some of the equipment that was flown on each stage of the Saturn IB and Saturn V Launch Vehicles and on Apollo Telescope Mount payload. A typical compliment of this equipment as flown on the Saturn IB, SA-209 mission, is illustrated on page i/ii of Section A-5 of Appendix V (Saturn IB Telemetry Systems Design Data Notebook for SA-209 and SA-210, 50M71536).
3.1.1 Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer Assembly, Model 103.The Saturn IB Launch Vehicle for mission SA-209 used only one Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer Assembly (RASM), Model 103. The unit was used on the S-IVB Stage as illustrated on page i/ii of Appendix V (Saturn IB Telemetry Systems Design Data Notebook For SA-209 and SA-210, 50M71536). These sub-multiplexer units were designed by the NASA, MSFC, Astrionics Laboratory and built by built by Teledyne Systems, Lewisburg, TN. The RASM was developed to expand the total number of measurements that could be monitored by the system. The RASMs are described as part of the ATM system in Section 3.2.5.
A brief description of the Skylab/ATM Program is presented in Appendix I. The first four ATM hardware elements described below are mostly flight spares that are identical to the flown subsystems. Starting with Section 3.2.5 most of the listed hardware elements were part of the ATM Telemetry System Test Bed which was assembled and tested to verify the operation of the complete ATM Telemetry System. Most of these ATM telemetry boxes were engineering prototypes that are identical to the flown systems and a few of the items, i.e. some of the Model 270 Multiplexers, are flight spares from earlier Saturn IV and Saturn V launch vehicle stages.
3.2.1 Apollo Telescope Mount Digital Computer (ATMDC).
The ATM Digital Computer was designed and built by IBM. The ATM System utilized two of these computers as shown on sheet 5 of Appendix III (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). As seen on Sheet 5 the two computers were interfaced via the Workshop Computer Interface Unit (WCIU). This ATMDC is believed to be the only one that is privately owned. It is estimated that there may be a maximum three or four more in the government owned space museums such as the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum or the Alabama Space and Rocket Center.
The ATMDC enabled the Skylab crew to initiate complex commands quickly and simply. It could also be operated by ground command, while the crew was sleeping or in the case of an emergency. The ATMDC was also used to control many of the experiments while the crew was asleep and also during the unmanned periods between missions. A considerable amount of redundancy was built into the system to reduce the possibility failures and to provide backup modes of operation.
ATMDC in NASA Shipping Container
3.2.2 ATM On-Board Television Monitor.
The ATM On-Board Television Monitor was the first television monitor to ever be qualified and flown in space. It was designed and built by Conrac in accordance with NASA specification 50M12766. This unit, SN # 6 was a flight spare and is complete with the logbook and other documentation. This is believed to be the only unit that is not in a government museum. Two of these units flew on-board Skylab plus a third unit was taken up to replace a failed unit. All three were destroyed when Skylab reentered the atmosphere. These ATM monitors used the standard 525 line video format with a square aspect ratio.
ATM On-Board Television Monitor
3.2.3 Skylab Workshop Urine Separator.
The Skylab Workshop Urine Separator was designed and built by Hamilton Standard. This unit is probably the only one currently in a private collection.
Skylab Workshop Urine Separator
3.2.4 Skylab Workshop Fluorescent Light Fixture.
The Skylab Workshop Fluorescent Light Fixture .
Photo Not Yet Available
3.2.5 Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer Assembly, Model 103.
The ATM system utilized a total of six (6) Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer (RASM) assemblies, Model 103. Because all of the flight units were destroyed during reentry, a working RASM is a very rare piece of space memorabilia. The Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer (RASM) was originally developed for the Apollo-Saturn program to increase the number of measurements that could be monitored by the telemetry system on the S-II stage of the Saturn V. The RASM was developed to expand the number of data channels that could be monitored by the system. Appendix IV, sheet 31 (ATM Telemetry System Functional Block Diagram, 50M17030) illustrates how the RASMs were used in the ATM telemetry system.
Remote Analog Sub-Multiplexer
Some RASM Trivia -The RASM was designed in the Telemetry Circuit Development Section, of the Telemetry Systems Branch, of the Astrionics Laboratory, at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. The Engineer responsible for the design was Mr. William Earl Maynard. Mr. Maynard underwent a successful heart transplant in 1999. The RASM was conceived in 1961 and the original design was finalized in 1964.
3.2.6 Remote Digital Multiplexer, Model 410.
The Remote Digital Multiplexer (RDM), Model 410 expanded the 100 bit digital multiplex capability of the PCM-301. The ATM system used a total of six (6) RDM-410s. See sheet 31, Appendix IV (ATM Telemetry System Functional Block Diagram, 50M17030) illustrates how the RDMs were used in the ATM telemetry system. See also Appendix V, pages: 2-2, 2-18 and 2-19 for additional RDM information.
Remote Digital Multiplexer, Model 410
3.2.7 PCM Digital Data Acquisition Subsystem (PCM/DDAS), Model 301.
The ATM used two PCM DDAS assemblies, Model 301. See Appendix III sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). The PCM DDAS was designed by the NASA, MSFC, Astrionics Laboratory and built by built by Teledyne Systems. One or more of the PCM DDAS, Model 301 subsystems were also flown on each of the stages of the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. The unit shown in the photograph is Serial Number 7000023.
PCM Digital Data Acquisition Subsystem, Model 301
3.2.8 Time-Division Multiplexer Assembly, Model 270.
The ATM used four (4) Model 270 Multiplexer Assemblies. See Appendix III, sheet 23 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). See pages 2-2, 2-23, 2-24 and 2-25 of Appendix V (Saturn IB Telemetry Systems Design Data Notebook, 50M71536) for a description of the 270 Multiplexer. The Model 270 Multiplexer was designed by the Astrionics Laboratory of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and built by Teledyne Systems. At least one of the Model 270 Multiplexer was also flown on each of the stages of the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. The unit shown is Serial Number 81.
Time-Division Multiplexer Assembly, Model 270
3.2.9 ATM Amplifier and Switch Assembly, 50M12785-3.
The ATM Amplifier and Switch Assembly (ASA), 50M12785-3 provided an interface between the primary and redundant PCM systems and the onboard tape recorders and telemetry RF transmitters. A single ATM Amplifier and Switch Assembly were flown on ATM. This assembly was designed by the Astrionics Laboratory of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and built by Teledyne Systems.
ATM Amplifier and Switch Assembly
3.2.10 Signal Conditioning Assembly.
The ATM used six Signal Conditioning Assemblies (also referred to as signal conditioning racks) to precondition raw analog measurements prior to routing to the onboard computers or telemetry multiplexers for telemetering to the ground. See Appendix III, sheets 8 and 23 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). The Signal Conditioning Assemblies were designed and built by the ATM prime contractor, Martin Marietta. The unit shown in the photograph is Serial Number 6.
Photo Not Yet Available
3.2.11 ATM Data Storage Interface Unit, 50M16223.
The ATM Data Storage Interface Unit (DSIU), 50M16223 provided an interface between the PCM/DDAS system and two other the onboard systems consisting of the redundant Tape Recorders and the ASAP Memory Assembly. The functions of the DSIU are described on page 20 of Appendix IV (Apollo Telescope Mount Telemetry System Description Document, 50M17030). A single DSIU was flown on ATM. This assembly was designed by and built by SCI Electronics, Inc. This is probably the only DSIU in a private collection. The unit pictured below is Serial Number 1.
ATM Data Storage Interface Unit
3.2.12 ASAP Memory Assembly (AMA), 50M12958-3.
The Auxiliary Storage and Playback Assembly (ASAP) Memory Assembly (AMA), 50M12958-3 is one of the five components that make up the ASAP. The other four components of the ASAP are the primary and redundant Tape Recorders, the DSIU and the Redundant DC-DC Converter power supply. The ASAP provided an interface between the primary and redundant PCM systems and the onboard tape recorders and telemetry RF transmitters. A single ATM Amplifier and Switch Assembly were flown on ATM. This assembly was designed and built by Electronic Memories.
ASAP Memory Assembly
3.2.13 ATM Flight Cable, 50M74128-??.
The ATM Flight Cable, 50M74128-?? (702A440W2) was used to provide connections from connector J1 located on the upper subassembly of the DSIU to connectors J2 and J4 located on the lower (or main) subassembly of DSIU, 50M16223. See Appendix III, sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). This cable is designated as 702A440W2 on this drawing. All of these cables are serial number 001, i.e. production prototypes.
ATM Flight Cable, 50M74128-??.
3.2.14 ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-3.
The ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-3 (702A440W1) was used to provide connections from connector J10 located on the lower subassembly of the DSIU to connector J1 on the DC-DC Converter and connector J1 on the ASAP Memory Assembly (AMA). See Appendix III, sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). This cable is designated as 702A440W1 on this drawing.
ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-3
3.2.15 ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-5.
The ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-5 (702A440W3) was used to provide connections from connector J12 located on the lower subassembly of the DSIU to connectors J1 and J2 on both the primary and redundant Tape Recorders. See Appendix III, sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). This cable is designated as 702A440W3 on this drawing.
ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-5
3.2.16 ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-7.
The ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-7 (702A440W4) was used to provide connections from connector J1 located on the upper subassembly of the DSIU to connector J2 on the ASAP Memory Assembly (AMA). See Appendix III, sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). This cable is designated as 702A440W4 on this drawing.
ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-7
3.2.17 ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-11
The ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-11 (702A440W6) was used to provide connections from connector J5 located on the upper subassembly of the DSIU to connector J1 on the ASAP Memory Assembly (AMA). See Appendix III, sheet 12 (ATM Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651). This cable is designated as 702A440W6 on this drawing.
ATM Flight Cable, 50M74135-11
3.3 Mars Viking Lander
On July 19, 1976 (15 days later than the planned Bicentennial landing) the Viking I Lander safely landed on the Martian surface. The earth was then 212,000,000 miles away. The Viking Lander was the first American made robot to land on another planet with a primary mission to search for extraterrestrial life. On September 3, 1976 Viking II landed 4000 miles northwest of where the Viking I had landed, on a plain named Utopia.
The Mars Viking Lander hardware described in this section is extremely rare (See the last paragraph of Aviation Week article in Appendix VI). The Viking Lander Guidance, Control and Sequencing Computers (GCSC) and the Viking Lander Data Acquisition and Processing Units (DAPU) contained in this collection are the only remaining units on earth. There are none of these units in any museum or other private collection. Likewise, the Viking Lander IRU is thought to be of the same or even greater rarity. Whereas this collection contains the four each remaining GCSCs and DAPUs there are only 3 known Viking Lander IRUs.
3.3.1 Guidance, Control and Sequencing Computer (GCSC).
The Viking Lander Guidance, Control and Sequencing Computer (GCSC) was designed and built by the Aerospace Division of Honeywell. The total cost of development and fabrication of 10 computers was about $23 million dollars. Of the original computers; two flew to Mars, one was destroyed by using it as a training tool to teach technicians repair procedures and the remaining seven were sold at auction and purchased by Mr. Hodges and Mr. J.C. Ball in 1982. Mr. Ball later scrapped his three GCSCs for the gold content. The remaining four computers are in this collection. See Appendix VI.
3.3.2 Data Acquisition and Processing Unit (DAPU).
The Mars Viking Lander, Data Acquisition and Processing Unit (DAPU) was built by Martin Marietta Aerospace, the Viking Lander prime contractor. Mr. Hodges and Mr. Ball also purchased the seven remaining machines. Mr. Ball also scrapped his three DAPUs for the gold content. The remaining four are in this collection.
3.3.3 Inertial Reference Unit (IRU).
The Mars Viking Lander, Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) was built by Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft. This unit and two others that are owned by Mr. Jerome Prater of Orlando, Florida are believed to be the only units in existence other than the two that are in the two Viking Landers on Mars.
Viking Lander IRU
3.3.4 Landing Engine.
The Viking used a total of 4 Landing Engines to control the decent of the Viking Landers to the Martian surface.
Viking Landing Engine
3 133.4 Spacelab
3.4.3 XYZ Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Cover from Astro-2 Pallet. (Flown)
The XYZ MLI Cover is shown with the "deintegration" tag. The items were removed from double zip lock bags prior to being photographed. See Appendix II.
MLI XYZ Cover from Astro 2 Pallet
3.4.4 Note About Flown Astro 2 Pallet Items.
This collection has many flown and spare hardware items from the Astro 2 Spacelab pallet. These items were found in a large (4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft) wooden crate that was purchased at a recent NASA auction. We are currently working with one of the engineers that was responsible for the deintegration and packing of these Astro 2 pallet items at KSC. The current prohibition on selling flown items will make flown hardware more difficult to obtain in the future. Also, the Spacelab program has ended.
3.4.5 Model of Spacelab Atlas Pallet Experiments
This model is an official NASA model of the Atlas Spacelab Pallet. It is estimated that about a dozen of these models were produced to provide a tool to illustrate the design of the Spacelab pallet. See http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/images/atlas/atlas1_1.gif
Model of Spacelab Atlas Pallet
3.5 Shuttle/Solid Rocket Booster (SRB)
3.5.1 Secure Range Safety Command Decoder, 16A03026.
The Secure Range Safety Command Decoder receives a sequence of tones that are decoded according the wiring of a code plug to initiate vehicle destruction in the case of emergency. The coded sequence is Top Secret prior to launch. The input to the Command Decoder is received from the Secure Range Safety Command Receiver.
Secure Range Safety Command Decoder with Code Plug
3.5.2 Secure Range Safety Command Receiver, 16A03182.
The Secure Range Safety Command Receiver, 16A03182 was designed to operate at 450 MHz and receive a sequence of tones that are used to destruct the vehicle in the case of emergency. The output of the Command Receiver is fed into the Secure Range Safety Command Decoder which looks for the proper sequence of tones. The size of the unit is 5.25 in. x 4.75 in. x 3.25 in.
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These Appendices provides background and historical information and supporting documentation to explain how the equipment described in this portfolio was used.
Appendix I Skylab Program.
Appendix II Spacelab Missions.
Appendix III Apollo Telescope Mount Cable Interconnection Diagram, 40M33651. (Hardcopy Only)
Appendix IV Apollo Telescope Mount Telemetry System Description, 50M17030. (Hardcopy Only)
Appendix V Saturn IB Telemetry Systems Design Data Notebook For SA-209 and SA-210, 50M71536. (Hardcopy Only) This document describes Skylab resupply configuration.
Appendix VI JPL Tries to Revive Viking Lander.
Appendix I Skylab Program
Skylab, the first US space station, was launched into orbit on May 14, 1973 as part of the Apollo program. Skylab consisted of two major subsystems, the Workshop and the Apollo Telescope Mount. Skylab program objectives were twofold: To prove that humans could live and work in space for extended periods, and to expand our knowledge of solar astronomy well beyond Earth-based observations. Three different Apollo crews manned Skylab during its 9 month mission: Charles Conrad, Joseph Kerwin, and Paul Weitz from May 25 to June 21, 1973; Alan Bean, Owen Garriott, and Jack Lousma from July 28 to September 24, 1973; and Gerald Carr, Edward Gibson, and William Pogue from November 16, 1973 to February 8, 1974.
The structure was 36 meters (four stories) high, 6.7 meters in diameter and flew at an altitude of 435 km (270 miles). Skylab was bigger than a boxcar and weighed 91 metric tons. A part of that mass was expendable food, water, oxygen, and life-support equipment for its three, three-man crews who lived and worked on board through successive missions of first 28, then 59, and finally 84 days. But a major portion was a massive payload of scientific, medical and engineering equipment. The majority of the experiments were of an optical nature. The goals of Skylab were to observe the lands and oceans and atmosphere of the earth, and the sun and stars above, and to carry out on-board medical and engineering experiments.
Skylab 1 - The Skylab was launched into orbit by a Saturn V booster. Almost immediately, technical problems developed due to vibrations during lift-off. A critical meteoroid shield ripped off taking one of the craft's two solar panels with it; a piece of the shield wrapped around the other panel keeping it from deploying.
Skylab 2 - On May 25, 1973, the Skylab 2 mission was initiated with three astronauts launching in the Saturn IB rocket. With a diversified science program set forth, the astronauts stayed in space for 28 days and 49 minutes. This doubled the previous length of time in space, making Skylab 2 a major milestone for NASA. Learn more here.
Skylab 3 - The Skylab 3 mission started July 28,1973, with the launch of three astronauts on the Saturn IB rocket, and lasted 59 days, 11 hours and 9 minutes. A total of 1084.7 astronaut-utilization hours were tallied by Skylab 3 astronauts performing scientific experiments in the areas of medical activities, solar observations, Earth resources and other experiments.
Skylab 4 - The Skylab 4 mission was initiated with the launch of three astronauts in the Saturn IB rocket. Skylab 4 was launched on November 16, 1973 and landed on February 8, 1974, making this mission a 84 days, 1 hour and 16 minutes in length, thus marking the longest mission in history for NASA. Learn more here.
Teleoperator When NASA realized that the Skylab orbit was starting to decline the Teleoperator program was initiated to build a spacecraft to push the Skylab back into a higher orbit. The plan was to use the Space Shuttle to launch Teleoperator. In order to save time and reduce costs it was decided to use much of the left over equipment from the Mars Viking Lander program to implement the system. NASA/Martin Denver collected all of the remaining Viking hardware including the removal of components from the Viking Lander on display at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum. Finally, after it was realized that the Space Shuttle would not be ready in time to launch Teleoperator, the effort to save Skylab was abandoned. Since the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was responsible for the Teleoperator program, all of the hardware that had been salvaged from the Mars Viking Lander program was shipped back to MSFC and put into storage. A few years this equipment was sold at a series of public auctions.
On July 11, 1979, after more than six years in space, the Skylab space station re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. Most of Skylab burned up upon re-entry. A few fragments fell to the ground in an uninhabited part of Australia.
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Appendix II Spacelab Missions
A total of twenty-four Spacelab missions were flown between 1983-1997. Almost all of the missions were very successful. Spacelab missions have been discontinued in lieu of the forthcoming International Space Station project. Links to WWW sites are included in the document for those Spacelab missions with hardware listed in this document.
Spacelab missions listed in chronological order:
STS-61-A German Spacelab-D1
STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1)
STS-42 International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1)
STS-45 Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 1 (ATLAS-1)http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/images/atlas/atlas1_1.gif .
STS-47 Japanese Spacelab-J (SL-J)
STS-50 United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1)
STS-56 Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS-2)
STS-55 German Spacelab-D2
STS-58 Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2)
STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2)
STS-66 Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 3 (ATLAS-3)
STS-67 Astro-2 The Astro-2 Spacelab mission is described at the following NASA Web site: http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/Shuttle/Astro2/welcome.html
The Astro-2 Instrument Pointing System photograph on the following site shows how the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) is used to protect the outboard instruments. Some of the Astro-2 MLI blankets have as many as 25 layers of this "super-insulation".http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/shuttle/astro2/description/ips/ips.html
STS-78 Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)
STS-83 Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1)
Appendix VI - JPL Tries to Revive Link With Viking 1.
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